Sentence Structures





Sentences Represent Thoughts
Sentence  =  Subject  +  Predicate
 
Subject =  Identification
Predicate  =   Possibility or  Reality
 
Sentence  =  Identification  +  Realization

Word word Head word Head word word word.
 




The Structures of Subjects and Predicates
Identification  +  Realization
Modifier(s) + Noun
Mary

Noun Phrase = Modifier(s) + Noun
Her best friend

NP = Noun Phrase + Mod. Phrase
Her friend from China

NP = Noun Phrase + Mod. Clause
Your friend who has an oven
+
Verb + Complement(s) + Modifier(s)
cooks.

Verb + Complement = Core Verb Phrase
cooks pizza.

Modifier + Core VP = Modified Verb Phrase
seldom cooks pizza.

Aux. Verb + Complement = Completed V. Phrase
should cook us a pizza tonight.




Verb Phrase Complements

Auxiliaries + Modifier + Verb + 1 or 2 Complement(s) + Modifiers(s)

Noun vs. Adjective
physical: get your coat / existential: get angry
dynamic : smell the coffee / stative: smells delicious

One vs. Two Complements
physical: make a cake / existential: make Bill the boss
physical: found a dollar / mental: found the class boring /

dynamic: are considering the offer / stative: consider the offer generous



15 Predicate Patterns
Noneobject Pred. Adverb Pred. AdjectivePredicate Noun Predicate Verbal
0.0
S VP
0.2
S LV Pred Adv
0.3
S LV Pred Adj
0.4
S LV Pred N
0.5
S LV Pred N Pred V
1.1
S VP D Obj
1.2
S VP Pred Adv
1.3
S VP Pred Adj
1.4
S VP Pred N
1.5
Subj VP Pred V
2.1
S VP IO DO
2.2
S VP DO Pred Adv
2.3
Subject VP DO Pred Adj
2.4
S VP DO Pred N
2.5
S VP DO Pred V

00 Uncomplemented Predicate / 0. Linking Predicates
1. Single Complement Predicates
2. Double Complement Predicates

Active Voice: 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5
Passive Voice: 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
Active Voice: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5
Active or Passive Voice: 00, 1.1, 1.2
                        




Predicate Pattern Examples
Noneobject Pred. Adverb Pred. AdjectivePredicate Noun Predicate Verbal
0.0
She cooks
  0.2
We were there.
0.3
The air is clean
0.4
Those birds are ducks
0.5
That is Bob singing
1.1
Bob found his keys
1.2
We looked [for the keys]
1.3
His hair was dyed black
1.4
Mary was elected president
1.5
We were forced to leave
2.1
I gave Bob a pen
2.2
He sent flowers [to her]
2.3
He dyed his hair black
2.4
They elected Mary president
2.5
He forced us to leave




Grammatical Alphanumeric Code
Numbers = Predicate Pattern
1st Number = Structure
00 = Uncomplemented
0. = Linking - Intransitive
1. = Single Complement
2. = Double Complement
2nd Number = Complement
1 = Object
2 = Predicate Adverb
3 = Pred. Adjective
4 = Pred. Noun
5 = Pred. Verbal
- Symbol = compound predicate
+ Symbol = compound sentence

Abbreviations
Verbal Phrases
j = (adjective) {adj.}
n = (noun)
      {noun} or [noun]
a = [adverb] [adverb]
      [adverb] or [adverb]
Dependent Clauses   
J = (adJective) {adJ.}
N = (Noun)
      {Noun} or [Noun]
A = [Adverb] [Adverb]
      [Adverb] or [Adverb]




Verbs by Pattern
0.0 Verbs arrive, collapse, come, elapse, expire, fall, sit, stand
0.4 Verbs + Pred. N. be, become, remain
0.4N Verbs + {Noun Clause} be, appear, seem

1.1 Verbs + Obj. do, make, take, want, like, have, eat,
build, print, wear, learn, hunt, feed, catch, throw
1.1n Verbs + [Verbal Phrase ] enjoy, like, want, see, hear, promise
1.1N Verbs + [Noun Clause] know, imagine, suppose, think / ask, explain, say,
1.2 Verbs + Prep. believe in, complain about, focus on, come from / to,
go from / to / with, get to, insist on, depend on, talk about / to / with,
look at / for, listen to, wait for / on, persist in, succeed in
2.5 Verbs + Obj. + Pred. Verb. hear, see, watch, allow, challenge, employ, force, get, help, need, like, want, advise, ask, convince

Bank of English: VERB PATTERNS



4 Types of Sentences
Simple Sentences 1.1n,d Some (of the students) need [to leave early] [to go [to the game]].
0.0-1.1 Please, come in and shut the door.
Compound Sentences: 1.1+1.1n I like basketball, but she likes [to play tennis].
1.1+1.1 Either you tell him, or I will..
Complex Sentences: 1.1N He said [that he likes sports].
1.1J I met someone (who speaks French).
1.1A I didn't drink the milk [because it tasted sour].
0.0A,A [If you leave now], you should arrive [before they get there].
Compound-Complex
Sentences
:
0.0+Nn0.0 He's leaving, and (whoever wants [to play basketball])should go [with him].
+N0.4 (Whether you drive, or he drives) is unimportant.
1.1n+0.0A It started [to rain], so we left [before the game ended]..
1.1A+1.1 She eats vegetables [because they are healthy] but I prefer fast food.



2 Types of Complex Sentences:
Matrix Clauses
Dependent Clause as Subject
N1.2 (What you think) matters [to me].      /      Your opinion
N1.1 (Whoever guesses the number) wins a prize.

Dependent Clauses as Verb Complements
1.1N I know [that he likes sports].      /      his hobbies
0.3J Your boyfriend looks {like he works out}.      /      strong
0.4N The important thing is {that the children are safe}.      /      the children's safety

Independent Clauses
Dependent Clauses as Modifiers
J0.4 The woman (who is sitting alone) is my teacher.      /      (on the sofa)
0.3A She is afraid [that the dog will bite her].      /      [of the dog]
1.1,A They won the game, [which is suprising].      /      surprisingly
1.1A [Before he arrives], he will call us      /      [Before his arrival]

Connectors: that, like, Before, What, Whoever, who, which
Reason because, Condition - if, Concession although,



Movement of Grammatical Units
The 4 Reversible Patterns: SVC -> CVS
0.2 Here is the key. / 1.2 [In a large shoe] lived an old woman.
0.3 Blessed are the peacemakers.
0.4 There are fifteen predicate patterns.

Object Movement in Dependent Clauses
1.1J Someone ate the noodles (that we bought).
1.1N I know [what] they talked [about].

Movement of Adjective Clasuses
J1.1 One student passed the exam (who never came [to class]).

Movement of Subject Phrases and Subject Clauses
n0.3 It is hard (to find a good job).
N1.2 It matters [to me] (what you think).

Movement of Verb Complements in Exclamations
0.2 There they are! / 0.3 How handsome you look! / 0.4 What a smart girl you are!




Movement of Verbs and Complements in Questions
Subject Question:
Bob is our teacherWho is our teacher?

Yes / No Question:
The party is tomorrow. ⇒ Is the party tomorrow?
She will be angryWill she be angry?
The children ate the candy. ⇒ Did the children eat the candy?

Complement Questions:
Are you sick? ⇒ How are you?
Have they eaten all the food? ⇒ What have they eaten?
Did you name your dog Snoopy? ⇒ What did you name your dog?

Prepositional & Verbal Complement Question
Are they {from Canada}? ⇒ Where} are they {from?
Is she sad [about her test score]? ⇒ What] is she sad [about?
Has she given any money [to him]? ⇒ Who] has she given money [to?
Did you talk [to him]? ⇒ Who] did you talk [to?
Is she talking [about [changing the schedule]]? ⇒ What]] is she talking [about [changing
Should I tell him to bring some food? ⇒ What Should I tell him to bring?



Determiner & Adverb Questions
Subject Question:
The tree fell [on the car]. ⇒ Which tree fell [on the car]?

Determiner Questions
Whose car was stolen? / What time is it? /    Which movies have you seen?
How many fell down? / How much did you spend? / Which room] were they [in?
[In which room] were they? / [What time] will she arrive?

Adverb Question:
Will they dance? ⇒ Where will they dance?
Did she become a doctor? ⇒ When did she become a doctor?
Do you play basketball? ⇒ How do you play basketball?
Did she dye her hair green? ⇒ Why did she dye her hair green?

Quantity & Degree Questions
How many trees fell down? / How much money did you spend?
How much is this? / How old are you? / How bad does it look?
How fast can he run? / How often do you exercise?



Making Sense of Multiple Dependent Clauses
When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.


1.1NJ,AnJ-nJ
[When [in the Course (of human events )] it becomes necessary [for one people] (to dissolve the political bands (which have connected them [with another])) and (to assume [among the powers (of the earth)] the separate and equal station ([to which] the Laws (of Nature) and (of Nature's God) entitle them))], a decent respect (to the opinions (of mankind)) requires [that they should declare the causes (which impel them [to the separation])].




Fulll Color-Coding vs. Basic Coding
When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

[in the Course (of human events )]

becomes necessary [for one people]

(to dissolve the political bands (which have connected them [with another])) and (to assume [among the powers (of the earth)] the separate and equal station ([to which] the Laws (of Nature) and (of Nature's God) entitle them))

a decent respect (to the opinions (of mankind))

requires [that they should declare the causes (which impel them [to the separation])]


Identifying Matrix Clauses in Complex Sentences
n-n0.3
It became necessary to diet and to exercise.
Dieting and exercising became necessary.

1.1An-n
A respect for others' opinions requires a declaration [when (dissolving political ties) and (assuming equal authority) becomes necessary].



1.1NJ,AnJ-nJ
[When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people (to dissolve the political bands (which have connected them with another)) and (to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station (to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them))], a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires [that they should declare the causes (which impel them to the separation)].


Review
Sentences = Subjects + Predicates
Thoughts = Identifications + Realizations
   Realizations are Possibilities or Realities

The 15 Predicate Patterns are based on the part(s) of speech of verb complements
Types of sentences are based on the number of independent and dependent clauses.

The movement of complements can occur in dependent clauses, questions, exclamations and old-style story telling.

Extremely complex sentences can be clarified by indicating dependent clauses and the heads of the subject and predicate with basic color coding.


Copyright © 2017 Ted O'Brien


Mastering Verb Forms