Mastering Verb Forms





Subject Verb Agreement
PersonSinglularPlural
1stI am / do / talk
I was / did / talked
We are / do / talk
We were / did / talked
2ndYou are / do / talk
You were / did / talked
You are / do / talk
You were / did / talked
3rd
  male
  female
It is / does / talks
He is / does / talks
She was / did / talked
They are / do / talk
They were / did / talked



The "N" Irregular Verb Patterns
Base Form   PastPast Participle
seesawseen
wearworeworn
 
givegavegiven
speakspokespoken
writewrotewritten
 
singsangsung
drinkdrankdrunk
swimswamswum
 
growgrewgrown
knowknewknown
showshowedshown



The Triple and Double Irregular Verb Patterns
Base Form   PastPast Participle
triple
cost
triple
cost
triple
cost
cutcutcut
putputput
 
doublle
become

became
doublle
become
runranrun
 

buy
doublle
bought
doublle
bought
fightfoughtfought
 
makemademade
understandunderstoodunderstood
 



Combinations of Auxiliary & Main Verbs
Auxiliary Verbs = Aspects
Possibility + Completion + Duration + Passivity + Process
will
should
must
would

have

have



been
be

are




being
study
studying
sleeping
studied
watched


 Existential Process Relational Process Mental Process
Dynamic become, turn, happen
It  is  becoming common.
  consider, plan, decide  
I am planning dinner .
Stative be, deserve, matter
They are being students
have, contain, owe
I am having grey hair
know, like, prefer
I am liking sports





16 Active Verb Tenses
present
talk / talks
speak / speaks
do go / does go
present perfect
have talked
has spoken
present continuous (progressive)
are talking
is speaking
present perfect continuous
have been talking
has been speaking
past
talked
spoke
did speak
past perfect (pluperfect)
had talked
had spoken
past continuous
were talking
was speaking
past perfect continuous
had been talking
had been speaking
future
will talk
is going to speak
conditional
future perfect
will have talked
will have spoken
past conditional
future continuous
will be talking
is going to be speaking
conditional continuous
future perfect continuous
will have been talking
will have been speaking
past conditional continuous
conditional
would talk
should speak
past conditional
would have talked
could have spoken
conditional continuous
would be talking
ought to be speaking
past conditional continuous
would have been talking
should have been speaking



(9) Passive Verb Tenses
present passive
are printed
is written
present passive continuous
are being printed
is being written
present passive perfect
have been printed
has been written
past passive
were printed
was written
past passive continuous
were being printed
was being written
past passive perfect
had been printed
had been written
future passive
will be printed
is going to be written
future passive
will have been printed
will have been written
conditional passive
should be printed
must be written



Past Tense vs. Perfect Aspect Adverbs
I saw that movie yesterday.
I have already seen that movie.

Did you eat pizza last night?
Have you ever eaten Japanese pizza?

Did you do your homework?
Have you done your homework yet?

She studied English [for 10 years].
She has studied English [for 10 years].

He has been living in Beijing [for two years].
He has lived in Beijing [since 2010].
He has  been  living in Beijing [since he sold his farm].



Present & Future Conditionals
Present Conditionals:
[If you divide six by two], you get three." (A fact)
[If you need anything], just ask me.
[If I can do anything for you], let me know." (Offers)
[If you're tired], then let's go home." (A suggestion)

Real Conditionals:
[If you win the game], I will buy everyone dinner." (promise)
[If you wear shorts], you will be more comfortable." (suggestion)
[If they are feeling tired], they can take a break." (suggestion)
[If they come early], we could all leave together." (suggestion)
[If she doesn't call], what will you do?
[If I see him], what should I say?




Past Conditionals
Unreal Conditionals:
[If I won a million dollars], I would buy a big house." (not very likely to happen)
[If I had the money], I would lend it to you." (but I don't have the money)
[If you met an alien], what would you say to him?

[If I were as tall as him], I could dunk a basketball." (I'm not tall enough.)
[If it were important], I would tell him." (It's not important.)
[If she were managing the company], we would have fewer employees." (She isn't the manager.)
[If he were here], he could fix the computer. (But he's not here.)
[If he was at the party], he probably saw her." (He might have been there.)

Past Unreal Conditionals:
[If we had bought that map], we wouldn't be lost now.
[If you had finished your work yesterday], you could have taken the day off.
[If he hadn't been talking on his cell phone], he wouldn't have wrecked his car.
[If you had been paying attention], you would understand why she's upset.
[If they had come straight home], there wouldn't have been any trouble.



Subjunctive Mood & Reported Speech
1.1N Verbs & the Subjunctive Mood
"He suggested [that we watch a movie].
Her teacher recommended [that she watch the movie].
They insist [that he leave].
The law requires [that he be punished]."
"I wish [she were here].

Reported Speech
I don't know her phone number. ⇒ 1.1-N1.1 "He said [he didn't know her phone number].
c¿0.3 "What is your name?" ⇒ 1.1-Nc0.3 "I asked her [what her name was]."
(past tense to present or past perfect)
1.1 "We
played basketball together." ⇒ 1.1-N1.1 "They said [that they had played basketball together]."
(future tense to conditional aspect)
?1.1 "Will you help them?" ⇒ 2.1-N1.1 "He asked me [if I would help them]."



Verbal Object Forms
1.1 We like her,
1.1 We like ice cream
1.1 We like summer vacation
1.1n We like [to swim together].
1.1n We enjoy [swimming together].

   (20) Catenative Verb + [doing it] (Gerunds)
      feeling: adore, enjoy, mind, miss, resent, value, can't stand
      thinking: consider, contemplate, imagine
      acting: avoid, delay, finish, postpone, practice
      talking: confess (to), suggest, admit, deny
   (35) Catenative Verbs + [to do it] (Infinitives)
      feeling: aspire, dare, hope, refuse, want, yearn
      thinking: aim, arrange, decide, expect, agree, choose,
      know (how), learn, plan, pretend, resolve
      acting: arrange, attempt, dropped by, happen, help, hesitate,
      learn, manage, proceed, volunteer, can afford
      talking: ask, offer, promise, threaten, vow
   (15) Catenative Verbs + [doing it] or [to do it] (Gerunds or Infinitives)
      feeling: like, love, hate, prefer, didn't bother, can't bear
      thinking: forget, intend, remember
      acting: begin, continue, need, start, stop, try





Complementing Verb Forms
1.1 He tends the bar.
0.0 You can go [to the store] now.
0.3 He seems happy.
0.0 Have you come ]to help us]?      
0.3 He tends to be impolite
0.0 You can go to sleep now.
1.1 He seems to like her.
1.1N You have come to show [you go on]

appear, come, seem, dare, get, keep, strive, tend

1.2+2.5 We got [to the zoo ]early, so we could get to see them feed the tigers.

go shopping, go fishing, go skiing, go hiking, go hunting

1.2 let go [of the rope]. .



Predicate Verbal Forms
2.5 Let's go!
2.5 He challenged us to think.
2.5 We heard him singing
2.5 We had the car cleaned.


(8) Verbs + Obj. + Bare Inf. Phrase
   sensing: feel, hear, see, watch
   causative: let, have, help, make
(28) Verbs + Object + Infinitive Phrase
   thinking: count on, expect
   causative: allow, challenge, employ, force, get,
   help, hire, motivate, pay, permit, require
   complex catenative: need, like, want
   communicative: advise, ask, convince, dare, encourage,
   forbid, invite, order, persuade, remind, teach, tell, warn
(4) Verbs + Object + Present Participle Phrase
   sensing: see, watch, feel, hear
(5) Verbs + Object + Past Participle Phrase
   complex catenative: like, need, want
   causative: get, have





Predicate Adjective Participles
1.1 A bird ate a fish
0.0 A fish was eaten [by a bird].

0.0 They were married [in a church].
0.3 They have been married [for two years].

1.1 This book interests me
0.3 This book is interesting. / I am interested [in this book].

1.1 The music excited the audience.
0.3 The music is exciting / The audience is excited.

1.1 The movie scared the children.
0.3 The movie is scary / The children are scared.

1.1 The economy worries her.
0.3 She is worried [about the economy].
0.0 She worries too much / 1.1n She should stop [worrying [about it]].

0.0 It was supposed to rain yesterday. / 1.1 We were able to change his mind.
0.3a It was supposed [to rain yesterday] / 0.3a We were able [to change his mind]



Finite vs Non-finite Verb Forms
Verb Form Finite Verbs Non-finite Verbs
Bare Infinitives We like ice cream
We must study hard.
2.5: have seen him play
1.2 let go [of her purse].
3rd PersonShe speaks English. --
Simple Pastwe cooked and ate together
--

Past Participles

have eaten
was discovered

2.5: get the windows repaired
RC: windows broken in the storm
Adj. broken windows

Present Participles

they are swimming
have been studying
might be sleeping

Subject: Swimming is
1.1: like swimming
2.5 heard you snoring
V.Comp.: went fishing
Adj. interesting book
Adj. swimming suit
RC: the people swimming
Adv. hurt himself exercising

Infinitives
--
Subject: To forgive is
1.1: like to swim
2.5: expect him to win
V.Comp.: seems to understand
Adj. place to swim
Adv.: went there to swim




Review
3rd Person Singular Subject Verb Agreement.
Irregular Verbs have patterns
Auxiliary Verbs -> Forms of Auxiliary & Main Verbs
Associate Adverbs with Verb Tenses
Master Tenses in Complex Sentences
Patterns 1.1n & 2.5 Verbs -> Forms of Verbals
Complementing Verbs -> Forms of Verbals
'ing' and 'ed' Predicate Adjectives are not Continuous or Passive Verbs.


Connecting Grammatical Units