The 1860s
1860s CE
Did not run for reelection but supported his vice president, John C. Breckinridge, who was defeated in the November election by Abraham Lincoln. 
alincoln.gif (8355 bytes)Abraham Lincoln  1st Lady: Mary
Seven Southern states formed the Confederacy on February 4. 
Five days after the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln announced on September 22 that all slaves in states still in rebellion would be freed in 100 days. 
On January 1, formally issued Emancipation Proclamation. In the Battle of Gettysburg in southern Pennsylvania in July, Union forces led by Gen. George C. Meade turned back Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Confederate army. Lee retreated to Virginia, marking a major turning point in the war. At the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery, Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address on November 19. 
The advancing Union army of Gen. William T. Sherman captured Atlanta on September 2. Sherman continued his "March to the Sea," taking Savannah in December. In November, Lincoln was elected to a second term, defeating Gen. George B. McClellan. 
On April 9, Gen. Robert E. Lee and Gen. Ulysses S. Grant signed term of Confederate surrender at Appomattox, Virginia. On the evening of April 14, 1865, Lincoln went to Ford's Theater to watch "Our American Cousin" and was shot by actor John Wilkes Booth. He died the next morning. On March 29, issued Amnesty Proclamation, pardoning all Confederates except those with property in excess of $20,000 and certain Confederate leaders. The 13th amendment, officially abolishing slavery, was ratified. ajohnson.gif (7759 bytes)Andrew Johnson  1st Lady: Eliza
Engaged in an ongoing dispute with Congress over Reconstruction and the power of the president in Southern states. 
Over Johnson's continual vetoes, Congress passed its own series of Reconstruction laws, enforcing African-American suffrage and making ratification of the 14th amendment (granting citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States) a condition for readmission to the Union. On March 30, the United States signed a treaty with Russia for the purchase of Alaska for $7.2 million. 
Ignoring the 1867 Tenure of Office Act, Johnson ordered the removal of Edwin M. Stanton as secretary of war in March. He later became the only president to be impeached by the House, but on March 26 was acquitted in the Senate by a one-vote margin. The 14th amendment was ratified on July 28. 
usgrant.gif (10723 bytes)Ulysses Grant 1st Lady: Julia
The first transcontinental railroad was completed. 

1800's 1860s