European Chronology Graphic Millennium of Subject
1000's 1000s  

1002-24 Henry II, king of Germany
crowned Emperor 1014
1013 Danes masters of England
1016 Canute succeeds Ethelred II as king of England
1040 Macbeth murders Duncan
Rise of Seljuk Turks 1042
1053 Norman Robert Guiscard conquers southern Italy
1053-65-1105 Henry IV Emperor
excommunicated by Gregory VII 1076 & 1080
1054 Malcolm defeats Macbeth at Dunsinane
murders him 3 years later
1066 William I & Normans conquer Saxon England 

Byzantine Comneni Dynasty 1081-1185
1085 Conquest of Toledo
1094 El Cid takes Valencia from Moors
1095 Pope Urban II preaches Crusade
1096 Peter the hermit leads peasants in brief Holy War
1096-99 1st Crusade
1099 Crusaders take Jerusalem,
Norman Kingdom til 1187


1105-25 Henry V captures his father
crowned emperor 1111, excommunicated 1112
1123 & 4 Byzantine Emperor John II defeats Serbs & Hungarians
1145 Pope Eugene III proclaims 2nd Crusade 1147-49 fails
1170 Thomas Becket murdered by Henry II's knights
becket.gif (11327 bytes) lion_n_wtr.jpg (5476 bytes)
Byzantine Angeli Dynasty 1185-1204 Decline
1187 Saladin takes Jerusalem
1189-92 3rd Crusade
1190 Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa drowned
1191 Richard I the Lion Heart captures and sells Cyprus
1192 Leopold, duke of Austria captures Richard I
released in 1194 and killed in battle 1199


1202-04 Fourth Crusade, Constantinople captured, Latin Empire established - 1261
1206-27 Ghengis Khan, prince of the Mongols
1209 King John invades Scotland, excommunicated
1210 Otto IV excommunicated
1212 Frederick II king of Germany
crowned emperor in 1220
1212 Children's Crusade
1215 Magna Carta sealed by King John at Runnymede
1228-29 5th Crusade led by Frederick II
crowned King of Jerusalem, signs treaty with infidels
1237 Mongols conquer Russia, defeat Germans, invade Poland and Hungary, but withdraw upon Ughetai's death.
1243-8 Five year truce btw. England & France
1244 Moslems take Jerusalem
1245 Frederick II deposed
1248 Louis IX leads 6th Crusade
captured by Saracens 1250, released 1254
1256 "100 Years War" btw. Venice & Genoa
1270 7th Crusade Louis IX dies of plague in Tunis 


1309-77 Babylonian Captivity of Pope in Avignon
1314 Scottish Independence won at Bannockburn
1315 Swiss repel Austrians at Morgarten
1327-77 Edward III begins 100 Yrs. War 1339
1328- Valois Philip VI king of France
1328-41 Ivan I moves capital to Moscow
1347 Calais falls to English til 1559
1349/50 Black Death-Plague 
1353 Confederation of Swiss Cantons
1356 Pope Innocent VI prohibits leagues of cities
1358 French Peasants revolt
1362 English introduced as official language in courts of law
1366 English Parliament refuses Papal dues
1376 Swabian League of 14 cities
1378-1417 Great Schism-2 Popes
1380 Wycliff translates the Bible
1381 Peasant Uprising of Wat Tyler and John Bull
1381 Venice wins "100 Years War" against Genoa


Hundred Years War -1453
1415 at Agincourt Henry V defeats French
1415 Jon Huss betrayed by future Emperor Sigismund
1428 Joan of Arc leads French to victory at Orleans
1431 Joan of Arc burned at the stake
1453 Turks capture Constantinople
1456 Turks conquer Athens
1455-85 War of the Roses
1469-92 Lorenzo de' Medici rules Florence
1479 Union of Aragon and Castile under Ferdinand & Isabella
1481 Spanish Inquisition begins
1492 Moorish Granada falls to Spain, Jews expelled, Columbus sails to America
1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, Pope Alexander VI divides the New World btw. Spain & Portugal


1517 Martin Luther posts 95 theses
1520 Charles V Holy Roman Emperor
1521 Luther in refuge translates New Testament
1521 Cortes conquers Aztecs
1525 Great Peasant War in Germany
1527 Hapsburg mercenaries sack Rome
1531 Henry VIII Supreme Head of Church of England
1534 Anabaptist "Communist State"
1536 Calvin writes 'Instructions'
1556 Charles V abdicates to Philip II & Ferdinand I
1559-1603 Elizabeth I
1572 St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
1579 Union of Utrecht - Dutch Republic
1580 Ivan IV the Terrible kills his son
1582 Gregorian Calendar adopted in Western Europe, 1752 in England
1588 Spanish Armada defeated by British
1589 Bourbon Henry IV King of France


1618-48 Thirty Years War
English Civil War 
Glorious Revoluion 


French Revolution 


Napoleonic Wars 
Greek Independence
US Civil War 

Balkan Conflicts


World War I
World War II
Korean War
Vietnam War

1000's 1000s