|The 16th Century CE|
| 1500s -
1500 Portuguese discover Brazil.
1510 Portuguese capture Goa, India.
1511 Portuguese capture Malacca, Malaysia
1517 Ottoman army conquers Jerusalem, Mameluke kingdom of Egypt, and Syria.
1517 Martin Luther posts 95 Theses to the door of the castle church in Saxony.
1519 Spaniard Hernan Cortes tours Mexico City at the invitation of Aztec king Montezuma..
1520 Cortes expelled from citadel at Tenochtitlan, where a smallpox epidemic was raging.
1521 Belgrade captured by Ottoman Turks.
1526 Turks under Sulayman the Magnificant defeat and kill Hungarian King Louis II at Mohacs, beginning Ottoman dominion over Hungary.
1527 Spaniard Francisco Pizzaro begins invasion of Peru; causes smallpox epidemic among native
| 1530s -
1532 At Cajamarca, Inca emperor Atahualpa is captured by Pizarro, leading to the fall of the Inca empire.
1532 Niccolo Machiavelli publishes Il Principe (The Prince).
| 1540s -
1542 Portuguese sailors make contact with Japan.
1547 Roman Catholic Church convenes the first Council of Trent, in response to the Protestant Reformation.
1549 Catholic missionary Frances Xavier arrives in Japan.
1552 Russians overturn Khanate of Kazan.
1556 Russians overturn Khanate of Astrakhan.
1572 Royal army slaughters thousands of Protestants in Paris.
1572 Battle of Lepanto, in Gulf of Corinth, where fleets of Spain, Venice and the Pope defeat the Ottoman fleet, temporary curtailing Moslem expansion into the eastern Mediterranean.
1576 Antwerp, Belgium, sacked by Spanish army.
1578 Peace reached between Spain and Turkish Empire.
1586 English Queen Elizabeth sends a legion of English merchants, adventurers, and courtiers to colonize the lush hills and pastures of Ireland's Munster county. This is the largest overseas colonizing effort of the Tudor dynasty.
1588 English defeat Spanish armada.
1598 French King Henry IV issues Edict of Nantes, giving rights to French Protestants.